Gadolinium side effects

Gadolinium side effects

GBCAs and MRIs
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are soluble metal-ligand complexes of gadolinium ion Gd3+. Contrast agents fall into the definition of drugs as a tool for making a medical diagnosis [1]. GBCAs have been developed to provide additional information on pathological tissue: they increase the sensitivity and specificity of detecting and evaluating various pathologies , of significant relevance for discriminating cancer cells. GBCAs are exclusively approved for use in conjunction with a diagnostic procedure. GBCAs have peculiar physical requirements as relaxation agents,and stringent biological demands for non-toxicity as pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostic tools. Chelation by organic ligands is designed to protect the tissue from the interaction with Gd3+ preventing its cellular uptake before fast excretion in the urine.
Gadolinium (Gd) is the metal sitting in the middle of the lanthanide series. Gd3+ is well known to be toxic for living beings. Uncountable interferences of Gd3+ in biological systems both in humans, animals, and plants are known since tens of years. Toxicity of Gd3+ in biological systems is largely caused by its ability in mimicking divalent endogenous cations, above all calcium ions (Ca2+). It occurs not just for its ionic radius close to that of Ca2+ but also similar coordination number, donor atom preferences, and binding behaviour. The toxic potential of Gd3+ when substituting cations such as magnesium, zinc, and iron should not be neglected as well, particularly for the role of these ions as co-enzymes in several biochemical processes in mammals. Nevertheless, Gd3+ has unique physico-chemical properties that make it the best probe to date for contrast enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance (MR) investigations for diagnostic purposes . Thus, detoxification of Gd3+ by strong organic chelators is essential for in vivo administration at dose relevant to contrast enhancement for diagnostic value.
Contrast agents can be classified depending on the nature of the molecular structure of the ligand: linear (i.e., open-chain molecule) or macrocyclic (i.e., cyclic ligand) and ionic (i.e., dissociation into charged particles occurs in solution) or non-ionic. Different chelating molecules have been developed and introduced in clinical practice since the eighties. The pharmaceutical chelate determines the pharmaco-kinetic of the agent and in vivo distribution.
Typically, extra ligand needs to be added to linear GBCAs during storage to prevent the release of free gadolinium, while macrocyclic GBCA can be stored without additional ligand. Each GBCA is chosen based on the tissue or organ being examined. Macrocyclic GBCAs are excreted in urine while linear GBCAs are excreted in urine or urine/bile. GBCAs have a half-life of about 1.5 hours if renal function is normal, and around 90% of the total dose is excreted in 12 hours. A single dose of GBCA contains 1-2 g of gadolinium. Most advanced way is to use HOPO Chelator, also 3,4,3-Li(1,2-HOPO) cas 110874-36-7 as Gadolinium chelating agent.

Release of Gadolinium from GBCAs
A study showed that gadolinium can be released from linear GBCAs, but not macrocyclic GBCAs, in serum at 37°C (body temperature). Metals such as zinc, copper, and iron have a high affinity for the ligand bound to gadolinium and can increase the release of gadolinium from GBCAs [3]. Ligands such as phosphate and carbonate can also increase the release of gadolinium. The accumulation of gadolinium in tissues is often associated with the presence of zinc, calcium, phosphorus and iron.
Free gadolinium can block calcium channels and inhibit nerve transmissions, muscle contraction, blood coagulation, and mitochondrial function.

Gadolinium Side Effects
Side effects of Gadavist are uncommon but may include:
headache,
nausea,
vomiting,
feeling unwell (malaise),
dizziness,
abnormal or unpleasant taste in your mouth,
feeling hot,
numbness or tingly feeling,
itching or rash,
skin redness, or
injection site reactions (cold feeling, warmth, pain, or burning).

Serious side effects of Gadavist including:
urinating less than usual or not at all;
drowsiness, confusion, mood changes, increased thirst, loss of appetite;
swelling, weight gain, shortness of breath;
seizures (convulsions);
breathing problems;
pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest; or
severe pain, burning, or irritation around the IV needle

The most common Gadolinium side effects caused by gadolinium-based contrast agents are headaches, nausea, dizziness, and allergic reactions. These symptoms generally occur within minutes of a gadolinium injection, if they do occur.

The most serious injuries caused by the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents are Gadolinium Deposition Disease and Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.
Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) is a debilitating and deadly disease that causes the skin to harden, and causes a patient’s joints to contract. The areas between the ankles and the thighs and the wrists and the upper arms are most commonly affected. Symptoms develop slowly over a few weeks to a few months after exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents, and can result in chronic pain and loss of mobility.
Gadolinium Deposition Disease (GDD) causes patients to suffer fibrosis (thickening and scarring of connective tissue) in an organ, bone, and skin, and gadolinium to be retained in the neuronal nuclei of the brain. Symptoms start within minutes up to two months after an MRI or MRA where a linear gadolinium-based contrast agent was utilized.
Patients suffering from Gadolinium Deposition Disease often experience chronic headaches, bone and joint pain, and clouded mental acuity. They also can experience subcutaneous soft-tissue thickening that appears somewhat spongy or rubbery. Tendons and ligaments may also become painful and have a thickened appearance.
Symptoms of Gadolinium Deposition Disease
Intense burning of the skin, described as pins and needles
Intense pain in bones, joints, tendons, and ligaments
Mental confusion or brain fog
Tingling or numbness in the skin
Severe and persistent headaches
Kidney damage
Skin that appears spongy or rubbery

Comment

related information

3,3′-DISULFONATED-4,4′-DIFLUOROPHENYL SULFONE, DISODIUM SALT cas 301155-59-9

2021-12-06 Fine Chemicals

3,3'-DISULFONATED-4,4'-DIFLUOROPHENYL SULFONE, DISODIUM SALT cas 301155-59-9 MF:C12H6F2Na2O8S3 MW:458.34 Synonyms: Disodium4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone-3,3'-disulfonate;3,3'-DISULFONATED-4,4'-DIFLUOROPHENYLSULFONE,DISODIUMSALT;3,3Chemicalbo…

Omicure BC-120 (Boron Trichloride Amine Complex) cas 34762-90-8

2021-11-29 Fine Chemicals

Omicure BC-120 (Boron Trichloride Amine Complex) CAS:34762-90-8 MF:C10H23BCl3N MW:274.46632 Synonyms: BTD, BCL3:DMOA, lewis acid accelerator, Latent Curing Agent, Accelerator, 3M Scotch-Weld EC-3450 FST, DY 9577, EPOXYLITE 577, Araldite DY …

Quaterfolic (GlucosaMine L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate) cas 1181972-37-1

2021-11-29 Fine Chemicals

Quaterfolic (GlucosaMine L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate) cas 1181972-37-1 MF:C26H38N8O11 MW:638.62692 Suppliers of GlucosaMine L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate cas 1181972-37-1: GNOSIS S.p.A; FandaChem Synonyms: 5MTHF-glucosamine, Levomefolic acid, Q…

Gadolinium Poisoning, Gadolinium Toxicity

2021-11-26 Fine Chemicals

Gadolinium Poisoning, Gadolinium Toxicity Most of the known toxicity of the free Gd3+ ion is related to 2 properties: its insolubility at physiologic pH, resulting in very slow systemic excretion; and an ionic radius close to that of Ca2+ (…

Ultimate Chelator HOPO for Zirconium-89 (89Zr) based PET imaging agents

2021-11-25 Fine Chemicals

Ultimate Chelator HOPO for Zirconium-89 (89Zr) based PET imaging agents Zirconium-89 is an effective radionuclide for antibody-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging because its physical half-life (78.41 h) matches the biological …

Medkoo Emeramide Price

2021-11-22 Fine Chemicals

Medkoo Emeramide Price 5g:    USD 150 10g:  USD 250 20g:  USD 450 Medkoo Emeramide Residual Solvent Class 2: DMF (Dimethyl Formamide) MedKoo CAT#: 319633 CAS#: 351994-94-0 CAS#: 351994-94-0 Chemical Formula: C12H16N2O2S2 Exact Mass: 284.065…

Detox gadolinium from my body? – HOPO chelator

2021-11-20 Fine Chemicals

How should I detox gadolinium from my body? We have found that chelation therapy and the use of specific oral supplements is the best treatment for most patients. Chelation is especially valuable – a procedure which uses a specific binding …

Sodium Lauroamphoacetate 35%,Miranol Ultra L-32,Cola Teric L-32,cas 68608-66-2

2021-11-18 Fine Chemicals

Sodium Lauroamphoacetate 35%,Miranol Ultra L-32,Cola Teric L-32,cas 68608-66-2 MF:C18H36ClN2Na2O4+ MW:425.92198 CAS:68608-66-2 Synonyms: Miranol Ultra L-32 Cola Teric L-32 Colateric SLAA MIRANOL HMD Lauroamphoacetate SLA Sodium Lauroamphoac…

Miglyol 840 (Propylene Glycol Dicaprylate/Dicaprate),cas no 77466-09-2;68583-51-7

2021-11-18 Fine Chemicals

Miglyol 840 (Propylene Glycol Dicaprylate/Dicaprate),cas no 77466-09-2;68583-51-7 Synonyms: CAPTEX 200 CRODAMOL PC ESTOL 1526 MIGLYOL 840 MYRITOL PC Myritol PGDC SABODERM PGDD Caprylic/Capric Fatty acids, C8-10, propylene esters PROPYLENE G…

Miglyol 812 (Capry/Capric Triglyceride),cas 37332-31-3

2021-11-11 Fine Chemicals

Miglyol 812 (Capry/Capric Triglyceride) cas 37332-31-3 Synonyms: Miglyol 812 Miglyol 812 N Glycerides,mixed decannoyl and Octanoyl MCT ODO DowSyn GTCC GTCC,Miglyol 812 for sale, buy Miglyol 812 65381-09-1 73398-61-5   Chemical & Ph…